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Generic methodologies for Nanotechnology

1. Introduction about Soft Matter

Soft nanotechnology is the study of how to control soft nanoscale structures and designing of new materials and devices with novel and valuable properties (Case and Alexandridis, 2004; Jones, 2004). Atoms and molecules are the basic building blocks of all matter. The length scale of Angstrom is used for the size of these building blocks. In case of common systems like water, sodium chloride, etc., a microscope with tens of nanometre resolution cannot detect these structures, but in case of latex particles, like a mixture of oil, surfactant molecules and water, the structure of these molecules is visible even at a resolution of micrometers (Gompper and Schick, 2006). These materials are soft because they do not posses long range molecular scale order and they can also be induced to flow because their movement energy barriers are often accessible (Case and Alexandridis, 2004).

Thermodynamically, soft matter is always a complex one, whether it is in solid or liquid state, such that the solid is not crystalline or the liquid is extremely viscous (Jones, 2002). For example, colloidal gels, liquid crystals, and polymers, generally in which conformation of molecules is not fixed. The solids are dynamically slower than the liquid ones (Bittner, A. M., 2006).

White et al. (2008) have devised a high frequency and large amplitude photo driven polymer oscillator made from a photo sensitive liquid crystal polymer

6. Conclusion

Soft nanotechnology has been widely agreed to be the research focus that will lead to the upcoming generation of breakthrough in all fields of science and engineering. The application of soft nanotechnology has been compared to hard matter in the fields of lithography, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products, and magnetic materials. The chemical characteristics, energy scales, universality and flexibility of soft matter present strong argument that soft matter generally exhibit better performance at nanoscale as opposed to soft matter.

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