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PROVIDE AN OVERVIEW OF BEHAVIOUR BASED SAFETY SCHEMES WITHIN THE UK CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. DISCUSS THE EFFECTIVENESS AND SUSTAINABILITY OF SUCH SCHEMES WITHIN THE UK CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. ILLUSTRATE YOUR ESSAY WITH SPECIFIC EXAMPLES.

Safety is a concern for everyone, particularly in the UK construction industry which chronically suffers from an exceptionally high number of fatalities compared with other UK industries. Button (1999) says of all business sectors, construction has the worst reputation for accidents at work. Serious injury and death remain common phenomenon in the UK construction industry despite all regulations put in place to minimize injury and death in the sector. In one of Health and Safety Executive report, "2.2millions people work in Britain's construction industry making it the country's biggest industry. It is also one of the most dangerous. In the last 25years, over 2,800 people have died from injuries they received as a result of construction work. Many more have been injured or made ill".
From the statistical report of HSE 1999/2000 on 21st May 2000, three workmen were killed when a tower crane collapsed at a construction site in Canary Wharf: only a few weeks' earlier three men had been killed on a site in HULL. Both accidents were dreadful reminders to the industry and to the world outside that construction has had a dismal safety record. "Figures published by the health and safety executive show construction have the highest rate of fatal and non-fatal accidents to employees of all major industrial groups.

Another graphic example of the potentially serious health and safety consequences of construction failure occurred in October 1994 at the world busiest airport-Heathrow. A tunnel under Heathrow's Central Terminal Area being constructed for the Heathrow Express rail link collapsed. It was described as one of the worst Civil Engineering disasters in 25 years. 

Proponents of safety incentives programs will argue that the programmes serve as a positive reinforcer that affects workers behaviour and eventually jobsite safety (Krause and McCoerqudale 1996).
The criticism has been that Yet, instead of examining how core work processes are affecting health and safety and working with the workforce to remedy problems, many employers have chosen to bring in behaviour-based safety programmes that focus on workers' unsafe behaviours - workers - as the problem. Not surprisingly, workers have expressed a rather jaundiced view of this "problem" tag. While employers and consultants call them "behavioural safety programmes," many workers and unions in the US refer to them as employers' "blame-the-worker safety programmes," or simply by their initials: BS. Now, more than ever behaviour and blame oriented systems are an inappropriate and ineffective approach at work. The failings of old are compounded by a system that concentrates on the behaviour of the individual when the behaviour of the organisation is increasingly recognised as the route of modern occupational ills including stress, overwork and conflicting pressures (NIOSH 2002).
It is necessary to improve safety planning and control methods beyond what is required by regulations and standards. Suraji et al (2001) found that planning and control failures related both to safety and production itself were major contributing factors to accidents in construction sites in the UK. Pre-project and pre-task safety planning is among the critical measures required to achieve a zero accident target (Hinze, 2002 and Liska et al, 1993).
McCollum, (1995); Kartam, (1997); Hinze, (1998); Ciribini and Rigamonti, (1999) have suggested that safety planning and control should be integrated. 'On one hand, typical production planning decisions are the basis to establish preventive measures. On the other hand, safety requirements must be taken into account in production planning. Otherwise production plans may fail due to the lack of safety" Saurin et al (2004).

Everyone on site can contribute to the improvement of safety on site. Conclusively the used of Behaviour safety scheme has been effective but more need to be done to sustain the schemes in UK construction industry.

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