- What challenge does fundamentalism pose for globalisation?
What challenge does fundamentalism pose for globalisation?
'Fundamentalism' and 'Globalisation' are two buzzwords which are
constantly being thrown around within the academic disciplines; in
particular cultural studies and political sciences, especially post
9/11. There is much debate surrounding these concepts and much
debate involving these concepts. However, the purpose of this essay
is to define these concepts critically and then to explore these
concepts in relation to each other, and then also evaluate whether
fundamentalism actually poses any threats to globalisation. It
should be noted that both these concepts especially globalisation
will be discussed within the remit of this essay, which is a focus
on cultural studies as opposed to an economic stance.
Globalisation is a thought to be an important concept/issue,
however analyses of globalisation are polarised to say the least.
In addition globalisation is a theme studied in relation to various
subject areas, and thus has a specific meaning or effect particular
to each subject area. For example in terms of social policy
it is felt that the quest to keep national economies competitive in
a global arena has prompted a neo-liberal consensus, across party
lines, which affects the way policies are formulated, and prompted
a move form the 'welfare-state' to the 'competition state'; where
states actor were concerned with using
institutions to correct undesirable economic effects whilst
promoting welfare goals, to a situation where state actors are no
longer concerned with insulating '… states from key international
market pressures, as state actors in the welfare state sought to
do, political entrepreneurs in competition states embrace openness
and marketization…' (Ellison N., Pierson C., 2003 p .26) The above
example also highlights the general focus of the economic aspects
of globalisation in relation to issues, as mentioned globalisation
has varying connotations in relation to each field, but there is a
general overwhelming focus on globalisation as economic
Fundamentalism like globalisation is also loosely defined and is
usually used to describe 'Islamic terrorism'. This essay has
demonstrated that fundamentalism is not exclusive to Islam and is
also applicable to Christianity and does not necessitate terrorism.
Fundamentalism is shown to be a 'theo-political ' programme, in
that fundamentalists use the sacred text their religions centred
around to extract fundamentals , which are then used as an
'ideology' to arrange society by. The rise of fundamentalism is
associated with use of religion for purpose other than the sphere
of an individual's personal life.
This essay has shown that in term of fundamentalism posing a
challenge towards globalisation; it is more accurate to say that
fundamentalism is actually a function of globalisation, a result of
the spread of modernity and post-modernity. Without globalisation
fundamentalists loses its relevance. The global spread of
communication has also benefited fundamentalism and this highlights
the argument that fundamentalism does not necessarily pose a threat
to globalisation, but is in fact a consequence of globalisation. It
also highlights the idea that when fundamentalism is not thought of
terrorism it is in fact harmless.