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Construction Project. Illustrate your essay with specific examples.

11:00 pm, March 14, 2001, Roncador field 130 kilometers off the Brazilian coast: Another day ends on the Petrobras Platform 36 (P-36), the world's largest floating oil production platform. Built as a semi-submersible drilling rig in 1995, the $485 million P-36 produces more than 84,000 barrels of crude per day (not the rig's full capacity) and roughly six percent of Brazil's oil (Wikipedia, 2007). Petrobras, the dominant force in the oil and natural gas sector in Brazil and pioneer oil refining, exploration, and production, owns and operates P-36 ('Petrobras stuill acts like a monopoly', 2001).

12:20 am, March 15: An explosion occurs in a column that supports the platform. While oil and water gush into the cylindrical column, the rig begins to tilt. After five minutes, it has tilted by two degrees (Chile, 2004).

On-going training is important for several reasons. First, employees would constantly be reminded that workplace practices, risks, HSE procedures and be kept abreast of the latest regulations (or revisions to corporate protocol based on on-going risk assessments). In addition, on-going training ensures that new employees are taught proper procedures and provided information similar to that of employees with longer tenure. Moreover, providing extensive and ongoing information to employees about can improve the practices they employ during daily tasks.

Dissociate HSE emergency systems from other general operating systems or important functional systems. The P-36 incident inquiry committee recommended, for example, 'do not build emergency drainage tanks into support columns' (Chile, 2004). Emergency systems should be operated separately from other systems so that the malfunctions of other systems can be isolated for the emergency system to take its place. Conversely, if the emergency system fails to curtail the accident or is itself part of the problem, it should be able to be taken out of the system loop and repaired or disabled. By locating the emergency drainage tanks in the support columns of P-36, Petrobras assured that if the emergency drainage tanks failed, they would affect the most basic safety feature of the entire platform: the ability to remain stable.

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