- Discuss how synteny can be exploited to isolate genes from...
Discuss how synteny can be exploited to isolate genes from and provide information on the evolution of the genomes of different eukaryotic organisms. Illustrate your essay with specific examples.
With the advent of the genomic age and the recent completion of
genome screening projects of many eukaryotic as well as prokaryotic
organisms, molecular biologists are now in a better position than
ever to exploit the available genetic information in order to
identify the evolutionary origins of many different species.
Modern bioinformatic techniques that utilise the data yielded
from genome screening projects can also be interpreted to identify
individual genes and the function of their gene products. The
wealth of information surrounding genome sequences allows the
technique of comparative genomics to be used in order to
investigate gene function and evolution.
The sequencing of further eukaryotic genomes will provide
further data to provide a comprehensive overview of the
evolutionary origins and functions of all genes. From a medical
perspective, the identification of genes and their polymorphism
useful is already becoming as useful tool in the screening of
heritable genetic conditions within individuals.
Following the continued success of genome projects, there is a
current wealth of research being directed at elucidating the
proteome, to identify the many hundreds of thousands of proteins in
the case of humans that are encoded by the genome, but are subject
to alternatively splicing, post-translational modifications and
phosphorylation that confer their specific functions.