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Factors that have influenced the health behaviour of a type 2 diabetic patient who smokes. Illustrate your essay with specific examples.

Diabetes is one of the most frequently occurring chronic diseases in the world affecting nearly 2-4% of the population. (WHO, 1998 p88).  Research has shown that lifestyle factors such as diet, physical activity smoking and levels of stress have a direct as well as confounding impact on the glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity which in turn influences the disease. (DeSouza 2004)  Health promoting behaviors consist of positive actions, taken by the individual to promote health, such as healthy nutrition, balanced diet, regular exercise, keeping fit, rest and sleep, and the avoidance of negative or risk behaviors, such as alcohol, drug, or tobacco use. (Pender1990)  Several factors may influence these behaviours and the effect of these on the health behaviour of a patient with type-2 diabetes will be discussed.

Mental Health

Exercise Referral Schemes

Increased physical activity and weight reduction are well recognised ways of reducing the risk of complications and improving disease outcome in patients with diabetes.  For the obese patient or patients not accustomed to physical exercise, the prospect of trying to lose weight through physical exercise can be very daunting and this is an important reason why patients are unsuccessful in this endeavour.  Exercise referral programmes are government schemes whereby General Practitioners and other health professionals may refer patients whose medical conditions will benefit from exercise to participating gyms.  Here patients are educated about the benefits of exercise.  Exercise programmes are then specifically designed to meet the needs of individual patients.  This may include gym-based exercises, walking, swimming, exercise classes and other activities.  These programmes provide help and support to patients to encourage them to increase their physical activity and lose weight.  Exercise referral programmes are thus an important strategy that may be used to help patients with diabetes to achieve maximum health benefits.

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