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Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFP's) and Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer(FRET) Systems. Illustrate your essay with specific examples.

Illustrate your essay with specific examples.


The following fluorescence excitation and emission patterns (solid and dashed lines respectively) are of the six major classes of GFP mutants and the wild type. The actual GFPs depicted are: a) wild type (Class 1); b) Emerald (Class 2); c) H9-40 (Class 3); d) Topaz (Class 4); e) W1B (Class 5) and f) P4-3 (Class 6).

Actual wavelengths of excitation (λexc) and emission (λem) are given in the following


  1. Can be targeted to specific tissues, cells, organelles, or proteins.
  2. Potential to be employed in measurement of many bioactive species other than Ca2+ subject to the availability of a conformationally sensitive receptor.
  3. Spatial and temporal resolutions are high.
  4. Mutagenesis can be readily employed for structural modifications.
  5. cDNA construction and/or sequence modification is economical and viable for distribution.
  6. Amenable for use with most organisms.
  7. Possess good optical properties like visible excitation, emission ratio and high photostability.


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