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How does Late Republican Rome differ in terms of Art and Architecture from other contemporary cities in Italy?

The Roman Republic can be defined as the phase during which the ancient civilization of Rome was dominated by a Republican form of Government, following the overthrow of the Monarchy around 509 BC. Opposed to a monarchy a republic is that which is led by the people, working together with government. The word originates from the late term res publica, which can be translated as 'public thing' or 'public matter'. (Sourced from:, Date accessed 07/11/08.
The exact point at which the Republic then evolved into the Roman Empire is debatable, although for the purposes of this paper the period between 146 and 44 BC will be under discussion in terms of the timescale considered to represent the late Republican era.
This was a period when the city of Rome was expanding in order to accommodate the increase in its population and the consequent need to develop more efficient water supplies and food resources in addition to handling growing political unrest and class divisions emerging at this time.

The Classical art and architecture of ancient Rome prior to 400 BC was largely Etruscan art in the form of tomb decorations, after which the Greek influence became dominant.
Particular to Rome at this time was the network of road systems, archways, city streets and arched bridges. Aqueducts were also revolutionary devices that combined science, architecture and art to provide the city with water. (Stamburgh, 1988: 36)
The Architecture of Ancient Rome adopted the external language of classical Greek architecture for their own purposes; they absorbed Geek influence in many aspects and combined this with the ancient Etruscan influences of their forefathers who supplied them with architectural solutions such as hydraulics and the construction of arches.

What is also very apparent is the reputation Rome must have demanded. It was on the eve of becoming an Empire and its location and notoriety combined to define it as a leading nation where people wanted to live and better themselves. The importation of artists and art into the city helped to shape it into a culturally pioneering nation all of its own.

During the first and second centuries Rome was at the height of its extravagance and wealth with a population estimated at the time as being considerably over 1,000,000. This population would have been diverse and varied sustained by a regular stream of immigrants, consisting of slaves and foreign visitors that escaped their rural lifestyles from provinces and beyond. Rome's paved streets, sophisticated water supplies, and sewage systems were revolutionary and as a city it would undoubtedly have far surpassed any other in terms of its size and grandeur. However it should be remembered that, its strained economic and social achievements would also contribute as forerunners for its ultimate future downfall.  

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