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Turabian Style of Referencing

Named after its author, Kate Turabian, the Turabian Referencing Style was first published by the University of Chicago Press in 1937 in the book "A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses and Dissertations."

Turabian style of referencing mainly derives from the Chicago style of referencing. Whilst Chicago referencing is chiefly used in the publishing industry, Turabian referencing is more predominant amongst students writing their essays, reports, theses and dissertations.


Similar to Chicago style, there are also two variations to Turabian referencing style:



Notes-bibliography style

  • Used by students in history, literature and the arts
  • The bibliographic details of the sources used are presented in footnotes or endnotes
  • A bibliography is added at the end of the work

Parenthetical or Author-date style

  • Used by students in natural, social and physical sciences
  • Sources used are cited within the text
  • Full bibliographic details for sources cited in-text are listed in a bibliography at the end of the work


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