A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled field trial to compare the efficacy of artesunate and praziquantel combination drug therapy
1. Background Despite efforts to contain the disease, Schistosomiasis remains one of the severe debilitating illnesses in millions of people. Although it has a relatively low mortality rate, it has a high morbidity rate, causing schistosomiasis to often be a chronic illness that can cause liver and intestinal damage. The disease is mainly found in […]
INTRODUCTION The view of human evolution itself is as old as when man first began to form philosophies of the process. The Greek philosophers such as Anaximander postulated the development of life from non-life and the evolutionary descent of man from animal, such as apes. Biological evolution which concentrates on the emergence of homo sapiens […]
How generally applicable are the principles uncovered through the study of the evolution of hominids to the evolution of life in general?
Introduction: The great triumph of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection is its complete applicability to all life that has ever lived, and ever will live. This used to be a highly disputed point, and in fact lead to a profound professional separation between Darwin and the co-discoverer of natural selection, Alfred Russell […]
Abstract The cladoceran Daphnia is well established as a model for ecotoxicology. Here, we show that Daphnia is also useful for investigating the effects of alcohol on heart rate. The results may then be extrapolated to determine the effect of alcohol on human heart rate and the possible heart diseases that may result from too […]
Disinfectants are a class of antimicrobial chemicals which are used to kill microorganisms inhabiting non-living objects and surfaces; they are distinct from antibiotics and antiseptics which are employed to kill microorganisms living inside the body or on living tissues. Disinfectants are widely used in industry, hospitals and domestically to ensure hygiene in the home setting. […]
Introduction When considering if water should be free at the point of use, it is perhaps more pertinent to look at why we have to pay for our water supply. It is widely known that the Earth’s surface, and to a lesser extent, ground water is intrinsic to a cycle in which it falls as […]
The deep ocean does not immediately spring to mind when wilderness is discussed. The picture is more often of deserts, the tundra, and the polar ice caps. However, this environment fits perfectly the definition of a wilderness used by the US, “an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, […]
Results The above graph has been plotted to depict the values obtained for various parameters of water quality analysis at different sites for river chelt. According to this graph, the water sample obtained at the source of origin of the river is virtually 100% oxygen rich, indicating a good balance between the production of oxygen […]
The Advantages and Disadvantages of the Fossil Record in Comparison to Extant Species in Understanding Evolutionary Ecology
Ecological diversity comprises two components: the number of species present and their relative abundance within ecosystems (Raffaelli, 2007). The fossil record, however, is used to estimate the number of ancient species and their abundance in the distant past. It is, therefore, logical to study the behaviour, morphology, general biology and ecology of any present (extant) […]
Numerous research investigations using animal models and functional brain imaging in the human brain, intended at understanding and subsequently defining the underlying mechanisms of drug addiction have been concluded or are underway. While probing the biological basis of drug addiction, what is imperative is the understanding of the pathways in which drugs act, along with […]
Sexual selection is the dominant theory for the evolution of certain traits in animals. In 1871, Charles Darwin proclaimed that sexual selection was qualitatively different from the process of natural selection and likened this process of sexual trait evolution to artificial selection in domesticated animals. Observations have shown that in several animal species, males contain […]
Vigilant and Semi-vigilant Behaviors of the Meerkats (Suricata suricatta): A Look into these behaviors in the Zoo and in the Wild. Illustrate your essay with specific examples.
Grazing the Kalahari Desert of Southern Africa, Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) are found to withstand extremes in temperature and predation. Subsisting on insects, Meerkats forage in large groups with females spending more hours foraging than their male counterparts when it is breeding season. Females forage more especially when they are pregnant or lactating young meerkats (Brotherton, […]
Question 1: How are social insect colonies founded and how does this affect the queen’s ability to mate? Answer 1: Most of the insects are not social barring a few that exists as social groups. There are a number of advantages in leading a social life such as collecting food, better defense strategies from predators […]
Discuss how synteny can be exploited to isolate genes from and provide information on the evolution of the genomes of different eukaryotic organisms. Illustrate your essay with specific examples.
Introduction With the advent of the genomic age and the recent completion of genome screening projects of many eukaryotic as well as prokaryotic organisms, molecular biologists are now in a better position than ever to exploit the available genetic information in order to identify the evolutionary origins of many different species. Modern bioinformatic techniques that […]
Introduction There are four major groups of modern land plant: non-vascular land plants that include mosses , liverworts and hornworts; seedless vascular plants including ferns and horsetails; gymnosperms including conifers and cycads that are characterised by the protection conferred upon the embryo by a hardened seed casing; and angiosperms such that protect and disperse their […]