- To determine the relevance of motivation theories within t...
To determine the relevance of motivation theories within the current organizational settings and effect of reward on employee motivation. Illustrate your essay with specific examples.
Introduction to Motivation
Extant research in social as well as consumer psychology has
examined the mechanics of motivation through a variety of lenses
including rewards and incentives (Deci 1971; Kivetz 2005), drive
reduction theory (Hull 1951; Mowrer 1960) and hedonic versus
utilitarian motives (Shiv and Fedorikhin 1999; Dhar and Wertenbroch
2000; Kivetz and Simonson 2002). The basic concept of motivation
refers to internal factors that impel action and to external
factors that can act as inducements to action (Troetschel, 2001).
The three aspects of action that motivation can affect are
direction (choice), intensity (effort), and duration (persistence).
Motivation can not only affect the acquisition of people's skills
and abilities but also how and to what extent they utilize their
skills and abilities (Kivetz, 2005). The level of motivation an
individual and/or team applies can affect all aspects of
organizational results, Knowing this, it is in the manager's best
interest to understand the reason for de-motivation in order to
achieve project success through the creation and maintenance of a
motivating environment for all members of the team (Donaldson,
In psychology, motivation refers to the initiation, direction,
intensity and persistence of behavior (Hackman & Oldham, 2000).
Argyris (1957) defines motivation as a concept used when forces
acting on or within an individual to initiate and direct behavior
are described. For the purpose of this research, motivation means
the desire and willingness to achieve personal and organziational
Motivation remains a challenge for organizations today and they
need to evolve into more sophisticated, customer responsive
business units. The rapid pace of the changing competitive and
organizational landscape has meant that the solutions to motivation
problems have become even more complex. To keep employees motivated
and for motivation to have a direct effect on performance,
organizations have to understand the process, theories, and
fundamental components of motivation. The need for belongingness
was found to improve motivation and is better satisfied in a
company with a strong organizational culture, where people accept
and support each other and form teams to work harmoniously (Judge
et al., 2001).
Implications for Centers and Extension
The study will have implications for both practitioners and
theorists. The research tries to determine the motivation theory
which works best under specific circumstances. It also assesses the
relevance of each theory within organizational setting. The
findings and analysis from this research can be used by HR
managers, team leaders and other people managers to determine the
best use of motivation theory in their organizations or