McAfee SECURE sites help keep you safe from identity theft, credit card fraud, spyware, spam, viruses and online scams

To determine the relevance of motivation theories within the current organizational settings and effect of reward on employee motivation. Illustrate your essay with specific examples.

Introduction to Motivation

Extant research in social as well as consumer psychology has examined the mechanics of motivation through a variety of lenses including rewards and incentives (Deci 1971; Kivetz 2005), drive reduction theory (Hull 1951; Mowrer 1960) and hedonic versus utilitarian motives (Shiv and Fedorikhin 1999; Dhar and Wertenbroch 2000; Kivetz and Simonson 2002). The basic concept of motivation refers to internal factors that impel action and to external factors that can act as inducements to action (Troetschel, 2001). The three aspects of action that motivation can affect are direction (choice), intensity (effort), and duration (persistence). Motivation can not only affect the acquisition of people's skills and abilities but also how and to what extent they utilize their skills and abilities (Kivetz, 2005). The level of motivation an individual and/or team applies can affect all aspects of organizational results, Knowing this, it is in the manager's best interest to understand the reason for de-motivation in order to achieve project success through the creation and maintenance of a motivating environment for all members of the team (Donaldson, 2000).

Motivation Defined

In psychology, motivation refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of behavior (Hackman & Oldham, 2000). Argyris (1957) defines motivation as a concept used when forces acting on or within an individual to initiate and direct behavior are described. For the purpose of this research, motivation means the desire and willingness to achieve personal and organziational goals.

Motivation remains a challenge for organizations today and they need to evolve into more sophisticated, customer responsive business units. The rapid pace of the changing competitive and organizational landscape has meant that the solutions to motivation problems have become even more complex. To keep employees motivated and for motivation to have a direct effect on performance, organizations have to understand the process, theories, and fundamental components of motivation. The need for belongingness was found to improve motivation and is better satisfied in a company with a strong organizational culture, where people accept and support each other and form teams to work harmoniously (Judge et al., 2001).

Implications for Centers and Extension

The study will have implications for both practitioners and theorists. The research tries to determine the motivation theory which works best under specific circumstances. It also assesses the relevance of each theory within organizational setting. The findings and analysis from this research can be used by HR managers, team leaders and other people managers to determine the best use of motivation theory in their organizations or departments.

Related Links
To Top