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A Literature Review on Assay Development for Budesonide, Using MTT

Introduction

Asthma is a condition affecting the respiratory system and is characterized by difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing and heaviness of chest. The symptoms are the results of narrowing down of the trachea, bronchi and other components of the respiratory system due to forceful contraction of smooth muscles on one hand and thickening of tissue due to inflammatory response in the other. A number of cells are involved in the inflammatory response such as Eosinophils, T-lymphocytes, Mast cells, Dendritic cells and Macrophages (Barnes, 2006). Asthma may occur alone or associated with a constellation of symptoms as seen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. Asthma is mostly reversible with treatment but the efficacy gets reduced in COPD. The primary line of treatment for Asthma or COPD is β2 agonists, anti-muscarinics, corticosteroids and antibodies (Barnes, 2006). All the drugs used for treatment act by reducing the underlying inflammation and thus assist in the opening of the airways which results in the patients breathing better. Hence it is common practice to assess the efficacy of an anti-asthmatic agent by its ability to control inflammation faster and longer than the existing agents.

Discussion and Conclusion

Thus there are many assays for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory propertied of candidate drug molecules base on their ability to curb oxidative burst. But each method has its advantages and disadvantages but the water soluble tetrazolium assay (WST-1) is considered the best followed by the MTT method which also yields very good results in terms of simplicity, precise nature and economy. More studies have to be for the development of highly simple and cost effective assays which permit large scale screening of thousands of compounds at once without compromising accuracy and reliability. Also it confirmed that Budesonide preparation using nanoparticle technology is superior to commercially available Pulmicort. The three time difference in efficiency may be attributed to the faster absorption and delivery of Nanagel compared to Pulmicort. However, more studies need to be done with increased concentrations of Pulmicort to arrive at a plausible conclusion. Budesonide seems to hold good promise as a fast acting inhalant but the data comparing it to Pulmicort must be reproduced using the efficient water soluble tertazolium assay (WST-1) method. Most corticosteroids have a slow absorption and hence upon inhalation create soreness and hoarseness of voice due to vocal cord atrophy. But many of the side effects of corticosteroids can be prevented by using a rapidly absorbable inhalant. In this regard Nanagel proved its worth as a highly efficient anti-asthmatic and anti-inflammatory drug.

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