A 20 year old male presented with desire to improve his football performance within the university team, specifically isokinetic leg strength, sprint performance and endurance, related to concerns about performance towards the second half of the match. Physiological profiling demonstrated that the client is within the normal Body Mass Index range (height 174cm, body weight 75kg, BMI = 24.8) (Cole, Freeman & Preece, 1995). Physiological fitness assessments demonstrated that the client has a VO2MAX of 50ml/kg/min, which is classified as above average (classified as between 47-51ml/kg/min (McArdle, Katch, and Katch, 2001), with a 30m sprint performance reflective of this above average classification at 4.85s (Chamari, et al., 2004). Peak isokinetic concentric knee extension torque at 180°/s was measured using the KinCom Isokinetic Dynamometer at 115N/m, a useful and reliable assessment of strength Powers and Howley, 2001). This strength measurement can be improved upon, and will be addressed in a training programme (Wilmore and Costill, 2004).
The client has specifically selected leg strength as a factor to be improved, in relation to ability to kick the ball harder, and shooting long range balls, in addition to sprint performance and general fitness. Assessment of the physiological profile has highlighted that the client is a healthy male, within the normal BMI range, and an above average maximal lung capacity. 30m sprint performance has been shown to be a good predictor of lung capacity (Chamari, et al., 2004), and the client’s time is reflective of this, although can be improved upon.
Based upon the client’s physiological profile and personal goals, a 12 week training programme will be designed to improve strength (specifically hamstring) and speed and sprint performance, including lactic acid clearing capacity. The client can allocate up to three hours, maximum 2 sessions per week, on training for 12 weeks. General fitness will also be worked on during the 12-week period, which will lead to the client’s improved ability to continue high performance through to the end of the football match.
Prescription of 12 week Training Programme
Peak power is generated by the fast glycotic system and phosphagen (Wilmore and Costill, 2004), with the nature of football placing great demand upon the muscle groups in the lower body. The overall aim of this 12 week training programme is to improve and increase the client’s speed endurance and overall capacity via a structured and periodised strength training programme to a level where the client can consistently produce a high power output (Powers and Howley, 2001).
The design of the 12 week training programme follows recommendations from scientific sources and the principles of training, to ensure that the programme is effective and specific to the individual. A 12 week period has been stated as an adequate and sufficient period of time for training adaptations to occur, and is suitable for the client to dedicate his time (Cometti, Maffiuletti, Pousson, Chatard, and Maffull, 2001). It is fundamental that the principles of training are followed and should be applied throughout to enable the client to acknowledge the specific objectives and goals to be achieved (McArdle, et al., 2001). Individuality should be acknowledged when the training programme is initially being designed, and refers to the personal and physiological specifications which will determine the training programme, including age, sport, time commitments, level of fitness and motivation, all of which have previously been determined. The overload principle relates to the demands placed upon the body in reaction to the training, and the training programme should include periods for adaptation to occur, to enable the client to work to their maximum limits (Heyward, 2002). The training programme will include periods where conditioning allows the body to adapt to the higher intensities of training, which avoids the development of any ‘burn out’ phases (Heyward, 2002). The training programme must be designed specifically for the client’s needs and the sport of the client. The exercise drills must focus on those areas that will improve performance within their individual sport and position (McArdle, et al., 2001). Adaptation should be acknowledged in order for peak levels of fitness and speed endurance to be attained; however the adaptations to cardiorespiratory functions, blood circulation, and levels of the phosphogen system will require longer sustained periods of training (Heyward, 2002). The adaptations that will occur should be acknowledged in the design of the training programme, and time limitations for certain adaptations should be realistic.
Progression in the training programme will be carried out in phases to allow for these adaptation processes to occur. Training will progress from lower levels of intensity and complexity towards the higher levels (McArdle, et al., 2001). The general plan for the training programme is to begin by targeting large muscle groups and working on improving the basic strength qualities that will provide the necessary foundation and influence the specific muscle training for the sport and position of the athlete. The training programme should progress from quantity to quality (Heyward, 2002), with a generic aerobic training programme progressing to anaerobic training to build up power and speed. The principle of reversibility must be considered and represents the detraining that occurs once the body is no longer undertaking training, and includes decrease in maximal lung capacity, muscle mass, creatine scores, cardiac output, and increased heart rate and lactic acid build up during exercise (Powers and Howley, 2001). The principle of variation prevents boredom affecting performance and motivation (McArdle, et al., 2001), and determines the variation of the training programme via training times, frequency, environment, drills and exercises. Rest and recovery principles command the adequate need to the body to heal muscle and tissue injuries, replenishment of glycogen stores, and for blood lactate to be removed from the body (Powers and Howley, 2001). If rest and recovery is not adequate to allow for these reactions to take place, this can result in exhaustion, injury, burnout and illness.
The principles of warm up and cool down are essential to ensure that the training is effective and to prevent against injury (Cometti, et al., 2001), with the warm up protecting against strains to muscles and ligaments via the increase in body temperature, and increase in respiration rate. Cooling down ensures that the muscles and tendons relax and the removal of lactate levels in the blood (Powers and Howley, 2001). The long term training principle should be acknowledged when designing a 12 week training programme, acknowledging adaptations with the client will ensure that the results of the training programme are realistic (McArdle, et al., 2001).
A 12 week training programme may or may not involve a period of plateau depending on the performance and individual characteristics of the client, the initial stages of training will demonstrate clear progression in training, which may plateau once the training reaches a level where the body needs to work harder to improve upon performance (Cometti, et al., 2001). This principle may not necessarily occur within a 12 week period, but it is important that the client acknowledges that this is an adaptation to the training, and that training needs to be stepped up a level to avoid demotivation and disengagement with the programme (Powers and Howley, 2001).
Acknowledging the importance of the principles of training, this 12 week programme will take a periodised approach to improve strength and speed endurance, specific to the needs of the client as the athlete. The training programme will be defined by four 3 week phases, with two 1.5 hour sessions per week, as per the availability of the client.
The first phase of the training programme will include aerobic exercise, and general strength exercises to provide the necessary foundation for the specific speed endurance and muscular improvements. Each week for 3 weeks will comprise of two sessions per week concentrating on aerobic endurance interval training (2 sets of 800m followed by 400m running, HR 170-80), followed by core strength and stabilisation exercises and low weight hamstring, gluteous maximus and quadriceps exercises in the gym and using the medicine ball (3 sets of 12-15 repetitions each).
The second phase will concentrate on muscle endurance and strength, and will include two 1.5 hour sessions per week for 3 weeks, comprising of interval running training (4 sets of 4 x 400m followed by 200m session 1) and 45 minutes of circuit training session 2, with hamstring, gluteous maximus and quadriceps exercises with increased weights (3 sets of 8-12 repetitions each) following this in each session.
The third phase will concentrate on integrating core stability with maximal muscles tension and peak endurance, with the two 1.5 hour sessions for 3 weeks concentrating on speed endurance (8 x 100m, followed by 4 x 50m sprints with 3 minutes rest in between each) and heavy resistance weights, hamstring, gluteous maximus and quadriceps exercises (3 sets of 6-10 repetitions each).
The final phase will consist of 3 weeks concentrating on muscular regeneration and flexibility, with two 1.5 hour sessions per week consisting of 65% of one repetition maximal weight for leg strength exercises, and yoga, cable machine and cross training for the remainder of each session.
It is aimed that this training session will provide the foundations of core strength upon which will be built speed endurance and specific muscular strength which will improve by the end of the 12 week training programme. Read more at: http://www.essaywriter.co.uk/training-programme-case-study-report.aspx?id=BMmd3L5aYdzIi